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French mathematician known for Fermat's Last Theorem

French mathematician known for Fermat's Last Theorem

Pierre de Fermat was a French mathematician recognized for his contributions to calculus, number theory, analytic geometry, and optics. He is famous for Fermat's Last Theorem and Fermat's principle for light propagation.

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300

Unsuccessful Attempts to Prove Fermat's Last Theorem

Over a 300-year period, unsuccessful attempts to prove Fermat's Last Theorem led to the discovery of commutative ring theory and other mathematical discoveries.

1601-01-01

Pierre de Fermat's Contributions to Mathematics

Pierre de Fermat, a prominent mathematician in the 17th century, made significant contributions to various fields including differential and integral calculus, number theory, optics, and analytic geometry. He also played a key role in the development of probability theory in collaboration with Pascal.

1601-08-17

Birth of Pierre de Fermat

Pierre de Fermat, a French mathematician considered the founder of modern number theory, was born in Beaumont-de-Lomagne, France.

1601-08-20

Birth of Pierre de Fermat

Pierre de Fermat, a lawyer by profession, was baptized on August 20, 1601 in Beaumont-de-Lomagne, France. He later became one of the most influential mathematicians of the seventeenth century, making significant contributions to various fields of mathematics.

1607-10-31

Birth of Pierre de Fermat

Pierre de Fermat, a French mathematician, was born in Beaumont-de-Lomagne, France. He is credited for early developments in infinitesimal calculus and made notable contributions to analytic geometry, probability, and optics.

1620

Education at the University of Toulouse

Pierre de Fermat attended the University of Toulouse for his advanced studies after completing his primary and secondary education at the monastery of Grandsl ve.

1623

University Education of Pierre de Fermat

In 1623, Pierre de Fermat started studying at the University of Orleans. He later earned a bachelor's degree in civil law in 1626.

1626

Pierre de Fermat Receives Bachelor in Civil Law

In 1626, Pierre de Fermat received a bachelor's degree in civil law from the University of Orléans. This marked an important academic achievement in his early life.

1627

Fermat's Interest in Mathematics Emerges

In 1627, at the age of 19, while beginning his legal career in Bordeaux, Pierre de Fermat's interest in high-level mathematics emerged. He became friends with Etienne d'Espagnet, studied works by Franciscus Vieta, and made his first important contributions to mathematics in 1629.

1628

Inheritance and Legal Career of Pierre de Fermat

At the age of 20 in 1628, Pierre de Fermat inherited a significant fortune from his father's passing. Instead of abandoning his legal career, Fermat continued working as an attorney while pursuing his passion for mathematics.

1629

Fermat's Mathematical Research in Bordeaux

In the second half of the 1620s, Pierre de Fermat began his first serious mathematical researches in Bordeaux. He shared his restoration of Appollonius's Plane Loci with mathematicians in Bordeaux and worked on maxima and minima during this time.

1630

Fermat's Last Theorem

Fermat posed the problem that the sum of two cubes cannot be a cube, which is a special case of Fermat's Last Theorem. This may indicate that Fermat realized his proof of the general result was incorrect.

1631-05-01

Fermat Receives Bachelor of Civil Laws Degree

On May 1, 1631, Pierre de Fermat received the degree of Bachelor of Civil Laws from the University of Law at Orléans. This marked a significant milestone in his academic journey.

1631-05-14

Appointment to the lower chamber of the parliament

In 1631, Pierre de Fermat was appointed to the lower chamber of the parliament in Toulouse, where he began his career as a government official and lawyer.

1631-06-01

Marriage of Pierre de Fermat

On 1 June 1631, Pierre de Fermat married Louise de Long, a fourth cousin of his mother. The couple went on to have eight children, with five surviving to adulthood.

1634

Wilhelm Boelmans S J's theses

Wilhelm Boelmans S J presented his theses in 1634, which discussed the sine law of refraction derived from the principle of Fermat.

1636-04-26

Fermat Correspondence with Mersenne

In 1636, Pierre de Fermat replied to Marin Mersenne's letter, discussing errors in Galileo's description of free fall, his work on spirals, and restoration of Apollonius's Plane loci. Fermat also mentioned his analyses for various numerical and geometrical problems, offering to share his findings with Mersenne.

1637

Fermat's Last Theorem

Fermat's Last Theorem states that for any whole number n greater than 2, the equation x^n + y^n = z^n has no solution with x, y, and z also being whole numbers. Fermat claimed to have proven it for n=4, leaving only odd values of n to be proven. He famously mentioned his proof in the margin of a book, but it was never found.

1638-01-16

Promotion to a higher chamber

On 16 January 1638, Pierre de Fermat was promoted to a higher chamber within the parliament in Toulouse, marking a significant advancement in his legal career.

1640

Fermat's Little Theorem

Fermat claimed that all numbers of the sequence 2^(2^n)+1 are prime, but he did not provide a proof for his idea. Euler later disproved Fermat's claim by showing that 2^32 +1 has 641 as a factor.

1642

Fermat's Method for Determining Maxima and Minima and Tangents for Curved Lines

Fermat's method for determining maxima and minima as well as tangents for curved lines was included in Pierre Hérigone's 1642 work 'Courses in Mathematics'. This work influenced later developments in calculus by mathematicians like Isaac Newton.

1648

Fermat promoted to a king's councillorship in the parliament of Toulouse

In 1648, Pierre de Fermat was promoted to a king's councillorship in the parliament of Toulouse. This was a significant achievement in his career.

1651

Fermat's Bout with the Plague

In 1651, Pierre de Fermat suffered greatly due to a bout with the plague, affecting his health in his later years.

1652

Promotion to Highest Post at Criminal Court

In 1652, Pierre Fermat reached the highest post at the criminal court after rising through the ranks. He was known for his fluency in multiple languages and his work shared through letters with friends and fellow mathematicians.

1653

Pierre's Survival from Plague

In 1653, Pierre Fermat was wrongly reported as dead during a plague outbreak in Beaumont-de-Lomagne, but he managed to survive and continue his duties at the court.

1654

Fermat's Correspondence with Blaise Pascal

In 1654, Fermat's correspondence with Blaise Pascal on probability led to the establishment of the theory of probability. Pascal and Fermat are now regarded as joint founders of the subject.

1656

Fermat Correspondence with Huygens

In 1656, Pierre de Fermat initiated a correspondence with Christiaan Huygens, which initially focused on Huygens' interest in probability but later shifted to topics of number theory. Fermat shared more of his mathematical methods with Huygens in a letter sent in 1659, including his method of infinite descent and an example of proving primes of a specific form could be written as the sum of two squares.

1657

Fermat's Last Theorem

In 1657, Fermat posed two mathematical problems that were considered unsolvable by many mathematicians of Europe. The second problem involved finding all solutions of Nx^2 + 1 = y^2 for N not a square, which was later solved by Wallis and Brouncker.

1658

Fermat establishes the principle of least time

In 1658, Pierre de Fermat established the principle of least time, which states that a beam of light traveling between two points will follow the path that takes the shortest amount of time to complete. This idea was developed through Fermat's method for determining minima and maxima.

1659

Fermat's New Account of Discoveries in the Science of Numbers

In 1659, Pierre de Fermat sent a letter to Christiaan Huygens via Carcavi, detailing his method of infinite descent and providing an example of proving primes of a certain form could be expressed as the sum of two squares. Fermat's failure to fully explain the construction of smaller numbers from larger ones led to mathematicians losing interest until Euler later addressed these gaps.

1660

Fermat's paper on rectifiability of algebraic curves

In 1660, Fermat published a paper titled 'De Linearum Curvarum cum Lineis Rectis Comparatione' where he demonstrated that certain algebraic curves, including the semicubical parabola, were strictly rectifiable, disproving the widely held belief that the length of algebraic curves could not be precisely determined.

1662

Fermat establishes the principle of least time

Fermat derived Snell’s Law of Refraction by assuming that light passes between two points in the least possible time, leading to the principle of least action in modern physics.

1665-01-01

Death of Pierre de Fermat

Pierre de Fermat, the renowned French mathematician known for his contributions to calculus, the law of refraction, and number theory, passed away on January 1, 1665 in Castres, France. Despite his reluctance to publish his work, Fermat is still remembered as a great mathematician.

1665-01-12

Death of Pierre de Fermat

Pierre de Fermat died on January 12, 1665 in Castres. He was a French mathematician known for his contributions to number theory.

1670

Fermat's Last Theorem

Fermat's Last Theorem, proposed by Pierre de Fermat, states that the equation xn+yn=zn has no non-zero integer solutions for x, y, and z when n is greater than 2. Fermat famously claimed to have a proof for this theorem in the margin of Bachet's translation of Diophantus's Arithmetica, which was only revealed after his son Samuel published an edition of the translation in 1670.

1679

Posthumous Publication of Fermat's Introduction to Loci

Fermat's work on loci, which laid the foundation for Cartesian geometry along with Descartes, was published posthumously in 1679.

1849

Experimental verification of Fermat's principle of least time

In 1849, A.-H.-L. Fizeau experimentally verified Fermat's principle of least time, which stated that the law of refraction (the sines of the angles of incidence and refraction of light passing through media of different densities are in a constant ratio) is in agreement with the assumption that light travels less rapidly in denser media.

1944

Neues über Fermats zahlentheoretische Herausforderungen von 1657 (mit zwei bisher unbekannten Originalstücken Fermats)

J E Hofmann presents new insights into Fermat's number-theoretical challenges from 1657, including two previously unknown original pieces by Fermat, in Abh. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Math.-Nat. Kl.

1945

Fermat's Integration of Xˆ

C B Boyer's work on Fermat's integration of Xˆ was published in the National Mathematics Magazine in 1945.

1950

Fermat's methods in number theory

J Itard discussed the methods used by Fermat in number theory in his paper published in 1950 in the Revue d'Histoire des Sciences.

1952

Publication on Fermat and Descartes

C B Boyer's article on Fermat and Descartes was published in Scripta Mathematica in 1952, discussing the mathematical contributions and interactions between these two prominent figures.

1957

Note on Fermat's Methods of Factorisation

A note on Pierre de Fermat's methods of factorization in 1957.

1961

Über zahlentheoretische Methoden Fermats und Eulers, ihre Zusammenhänge und ihre Bedeutung

J E Hofmann delves into the connections and significance of number-theoretical methods of Fermat and Euler in the publication Arch. Hist. Exact Sci.

1963

Geschichte der Mathematik. Teil I : Von den Anfängen bis zum Auftreten von Fermat und Descartes by J E Hofmann

J E Hofmann's book 'Geschichte der Mathematik' provides a historical account of the development of mathematics, including the period leading up to the emergence of mathematicians like Fermat and Descartes, offering insights into the evolution of mathematical thought.

1966

Fermat's influence on Newton and Leibniz

J A Lohne discussed the influence of Fermat on Newton, Leibniz, and the anaklastische problem in 1966 in the Nordisk Matematisk Tidskrift.

1967

Fermat à Castres

P Chabbert's work on Fermat in Castres was published in the Review of History of Science and its Applications in 1967.

1968

Fermat, Torricelli, Roberval

L S Freiman's work on Fermat, Torricelli, and Roberval was published in a collection of articles on classical science by 'Nauka' Moscow in 1968.

1969

Fermat's method of determining tangents

C Jensen delved into Pierre Fermat's method of determining tangents of curves and its application to the conchoid and the quadratrix in 1969 in the journal Centaurus.

1971

Pierre de Fermat: A Historical Sketch

J E Hofmann's scientific historical sketch on Pierre de Fermat was published in the journal Science History in 1971.

1972

Fermat's mathematics: Proofs and conjectures

M S Mahoney explored Fermat's mathematics, including proofs and conjectures, in 1972 in the journal Science.

1973

Michael Sean Mahoney's Work on Pierre de Fermat

In 1973, Michael Sean Mahoney published 'The Mathematical Career of Pierre de Fermat,' shedding light on the mathematical journey of Pierre de Fermat.

1976

Correspondence between Pascal and Fermat on Probability Theory

The correspondence between Blaise Pascal and Pierre de Fermat on questions of probability theory in 1976.

1982

Double equations in the work of Fermat

A P Kauchikas examined double equations in the work of Diophantus and Pierre Fermat in 1982 in the Istoriko-Matematicheskie Issledovaniya.

1983

Comment on Fermat's 'Observations on Diophantus'

A comment on Fermat's 'Observations on Diophantus' in 1983.

1984

André Weil's Assessment of Fermat's Number Theoretic Work

André Weil, a 20th-century mathematician, praised Fermat's methods for dealing with curves of genus 1, stating that they are still the basis for modern theory. Weil highlighted Fermat's innovative approach and his significant contributions to the field of number theory.

1988

Conceptual Direction of P de Fermat's Works

Discussion on the conceptual direction of Pierre de Fermat's works in 1988.

1989

Précis des oeuvres mathématiques de P Fermat et de l'Arithmétique de Diophante by E Brassinne

E Brassinne's work 'Précis des oeuvres mathématiques de P Fermat et de l'Arithmétique de Diophante' sheds light on Pierre de Fermat's mathematical contributions and his connection to Diophantus' Arithmetica, providing valuable insights into the history of mathematics.

1990

Historical associations of Fermat in France

J-B Hiriart-Urruty explored the historical associations of Fermat in Beaumont and Toulouse, France in 1990 in the Mathematical Intelligencer.

1991

Reconstruction of the Frenicle - Fermat Correspondence of 1640

C R Fletcher's reconstruction of the Frenicle - Fermat correspondence of 1640 was published in the journal Historia Mathematica in 1991.

1993-06

Proof of Fermat's Last Theorem

In June 1993, British mathematician Andrew Wiles proved the truth of Fermat's assertion, but later withdrew the claim due to problems. However, in November 1994, Wiles claimed to have a correct proof which was eventually accepted.

1994

Proof of Fermat's Last Theorem by Sir Andrew Wiles

Fermat's Last Theorem, which eluded mathematicians for centuries, was finally proven in 1994 by Sir Andrew Wiles. This groundbreaking proof utilized advanced mathematical techniques that were not available during Fermat's time.

1995

Andrew Wiles' Proof of Fermat's Last Theorem

After over 300 years of attempts to prove Fermat's Last Theorem, Andrew Wiles, a professor of mathematics at Princeton University, published a complete proof in 1995. This breakthrough finally solved the theorem that had puzzled mathematicians for centuries.

1996

Peter L. Bernstein's Perspective on Fermat's Mathematical Abilities

In his book 'Against the Gods', Peter L. Bernstein described Fermat as a mathematician of rare power who independently invented analytic geometry, contributed to calculus, and made significant advancements in various areas of mathematics. Bernstein highlighted Fermat's crowning achievement in the theory of numbers.

2001

Publication on Fermat's Age

K Barner's article 'How old did Fermat become?' was published in the International Journal for History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology and Medicine in 2001, discussing aspects of Fermat's life and age.

End of the Timeline

**Pierre de Fermat**

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French mathematician known for Fermat's Last Theorem

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