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2024-11-07 12:34:15

Fundamental theory in physics

Fundamental theory in physics

Quantum mechanics is the foundation of quantum physics, describing nature at atomic and subatomic scales. It explains wave-particle duality and the uncertainty principle. Developed in the 1920s by Bohr, Schrödinger, Heisenberg, and others, it uses mathematical formalisms like the wave function.

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1672

Newton presents the corpuscular theory of light

Newton presents the theory that light is made up of particles, known as the corpuscular theory of light.

1801

Single slit diffraction

Single slit diffraction refers to the phenomenon where a wave passing through a single slit spreads out and creates an interference pattern. It is related to the uncertainty principle and the relationship between the position and momentum of particles.

1814

Discovery of Fraunhofer Lines in Solar Spectrum

Joseph Fraunhofer notices fine black lines in the spectrum of the sun when passing sunlight through a prism, which remains a mystery to physicists for 45 years.

1834

Hamilton's Equations for Light

In 1834, Hamilton wrote equations that describe the path taken by light in the approximation that the wavelength is very small, establishing a connection between waves and particle motion.

1858

Plucker's Experiment with Evacuated Glass Tube

Julius Plucker conducts an experiment with an evacuated glass tube and high voltage, leading to the observation of green light and the shifting of its pattern with a magnet, caused by free electrons exciting spectral lines in the glass.

1859

Kirchhoff's Deduction of Spectral Lines

Gustav Kirchhoff deduces that dark lines in the solar spectrum and bright lines in heated laboratory gases are related, realizing that every element is associated with a unique set of frequencies, which is a fundamental concept in quantum mechanics.

1860

Kirchhoff's Black Body Radiation Theory

Kirchhoff suggests using a closed chamber heated red-hot to study light emission without spectral lines, leading to the concept of a 'black body', which becomes a fundamental example in the transformation of heat into electromagnetic waves, a concept important in quantum mechanics.

1865

Maxwell introduces his theory on electrodynamics

Maxwell introduces his theory on electrodynamics, establishing light as an electromagnetic wave and describing the medium of traveling of light as the 'luminiferous ether'.

1876

Discovery of Cathode Rays

Eugen Goldstein, a German physicist, studying the flow of electric current through a vacuum, notices a beam flowing from the negative plate to the glass, which he calls a 'cathode ray'. This discovery leads to the naming of electrons as 'cathode rays' for the next 30 years.

1877

Boltzmann's Discrete Energy Levels

Boltzmann suggests that the energy levels of a physical system could be discrete based on statistical mechanics and mathematical arguments, and produces the first circle diagram representation of a molecule.

1879

Stefan's Proposal on Energy Emission

In 1879, Josef Stefan proposed that the total energy emitted by a hot body was proportional to the fourth power of the temperature. This proposal contributed to the understanding of energy emission from hot bodies.

1880

Demonstration of Cathode Rays Properties

William Crookes, an English physicist, demonstrates that cathode rays travel in straight lines, cast sharp shadows, and carry an electrostatic charge. He also shows that the cathode rays can turn a paddle wheel when they hit it, indicating that they are a stream of charged particles.

1884

Stefan-Boltzmann Law

In 1884, Ludwig Boltzmann formulated the Stefan-Boltzmann law, which describes the total energy emitted by a blackbody. This law significantly contributed to the understanding of blackbody radiation and energy emission.

1885

Balmer's Discovery of Hydrogen Spectral Lines

Johann Jakob Balmer discovers a numerical relationship between visible spectral lines of hydrogen, known as the Balmer series.

1887

Heinrich Hertz's Discovery of Photoelectric Effect

Heinrich Hertz discovers the photoelectric effect, which is later shown by Einstein to involve quanta of light.

1888

Hertz's Experimental Demonstration of Electromagnetic Waves

Heinrich Hertz demonstrates experimentally that electromagnetic waves exist, as predicted by Maxwell.

1890

Study of Blackbody Radiation and Ultraviolet Catastrophe

Experimental physicists turn their attention to studying blackbody radiation and discover the 'blackbody spectrum', which contradicts classical theory and experimental data. The search for an explanation of the blackbody spectrum becomes one of the most important problems in theoretical physics at this time.

1895

Discovery of X-rays by William Roentgen

In 1895, German physicist William Roentgen discovers X-rays, which are invisible rays emitted by Crookes tubes. He names them 'X-rays' due to their unknown nature. This discovery leads to the use of X-rays in medical diagnosis within three years.

1896-01

Marie Curie investigates uranium salt samples

Marie Curie investigates uranium salt samples using a very sensitive electrometer device and discovers that rays emitted by the uranium salt samples make the surrounding air electrically conductive.

1897

J. J. Thomson suggests the existence of electrons

J. J. Thomson's experimentation with cathode rays led him to suggest a fundamental unit more than a 1,000 times smaller than an atom, based on the high charge-to-mass ratio. He called the particle a 'corpuscle', but later scientists preferred the term electron.

1899

Max Planck's Quantum Hypothesis

Max Planck made the unprecedented step of assuming that the total energy is made up of indistinguishable energy elements - quanta of energy. This led to the development of quantum theory and had a significant impact on the field of physics.

1900

Planck's Quantum Hypothesis

Max Planck proposed the idea that energy is quantized, meaning it can only exist in discrete units. This hypothesis laid the foundation for the development of quantum mechanics and revolutionized the understanding of atomic and subatomic processes.

1900

Introduction of Quantum Mechanics by Max Planck

Max Planck introduced the concept of discrete quanta to explain black-body radiation, revolutionizing the atomic theory and laying the foundation for Quantum Mechanics.

1902

Investigation of Photoelectric Effect by Philipp Lenard

In 1902, French physicist Philipp Lenard investigates the photoelectric effect and discovers that the frequency of light, not its intensity, determines the emission of electrons from a metal. This result contradicts Newtonian physics and leads to the understanding of the wave-particle duality of light.

1905

Photoelectric Effect

Albert Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect in 1905, where he proposed that light consists of discrete packets of energy called photons, played a crucial role in the establishment of quantum theory.

1907-01

Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiment

Ernest Rutherford conducted an experiment where he directed alpha particles at a thin gold foil and observed that some particles were deflected, indicating the presence of a small, positively charged atomic nucleus.

1909

Interference of Photons by Geoffrey Ingram Taylor

Geoffrey Ingram Taylor demonstrated in 1909 that photons exhibit interference with themselves, even when only one photon is present near the slits at any given time. This experiment contributed significantly to the understanding of quantum mechanics.

1911

Measurement of the charge on the electron by Robert Millikan

Robert Millikan measures the charge on the electron to within 1% using a method involving oil droplets, a tele-microscope, and a voltage differential across a chamber. He proves that the charge on the electron is fixed at 1.6 X 10-19 coulomb and provides evidence that it is the smallest, most fundamental unit of charge in the Universe. This experiment is considered to be one of the most laborious ever carried out by one man.

1912

Henri Poincaré's Mathematical Argument on Energy Quanta

Henri Poincaré publishes a significant mathematical argument supporting the essential nature of energy quanta, contributing to the development of quantum theory.

1913

Bohr-Rutherford Model

Niels Bohr proposed the Bohr-Rutherford model of the atom in 1913, which incorporated the quantization of electron orbits and laid the foundation for quantum atomic theory.

1913

Niels Bohr formulates atomic nucleus model

Niels Bohr creates the first comprehensive model of the atomic nucleus, laying the foundation for quantum mechanics.

1914

James Franck and Gustav Hertz's Experiment on Electron Collisions with Mercury Atoms

James Franck and Gustav Hertz report their experiment on electron collisions with mercury atoms, providing a new test of Bohr's quantized model of atomic energy levels, contributing to the validation of quantum theory.

1914

Wave-Particle Duality - Dual Nature of Radiation

In 1914, Danish physicist Niels Bohr introduced the concept of wave-particle duality, suggesting that radiation exhibits both wave-like and particle-like behavior, laying the foundation for quantum mechanics.

1915

Arnold Sommerfeld extends Bohr's ideas about the hydrogen atom

Arnold Sommerfeld extends Niels Bohr's model of the hydrogen atom by including elliptical orbits and relativity, allowing for a more detailed explanation of the hydrogen spectrum.

1916

Einstein concludes that photons carry discrete amounts of energy and momentum

Albert Einstein concludes that photons not only carry discrete amounts of energy, but also carry momentum, as expressed by the formula p = hf / c.

1918

Ernest Rutherford discovers hydrogen nuclei in nitrogen gas

Ernest Rutherford observes that when alpha particles are shot into nitrogen gas, his detectors show the signatures of hydrogen nuclei, leading him to conclude that nitrogen must contain hydrogen nuclei, which he identifies as elementary particles known as protons.

1920

Quantum Mechanics Equation

The equation F=ma is a fundamental equation in physics, representing Newton's second law of motion. It states that the force acting on an object is equal to the mass of that object multiplied by its acceleration.

1922

Stern–Gerlach Experiment

Otto Stern and Walther Gerlach perform the Stern–Gerlach experiment, detecting discrete values of angular momentum for atoms in the ground state passing through an inhomogeneous magnetic field, leading to the discovery of the spin of the electron.

1923

Compton Effect Demonstrated by Arthur Compton

Arthur Compton's demonstration in 1923 showed that X-rays exhibit a phenomenon where they bounce off and eject electrons, similar to the collision of billiard balls. This experiment provided crucial evidence for the wave-particle duality of light.

1924

De Broglie's Extension of Wave-Particle Duality

In 1924, Louis De Broglie extended the concept of wave-particle duality to particles using relativistic arguments, which was a groundbreaking development in quantum mechanics.

1924

Dual Nature of Matter

In 1924, French physicist Louis de Broglie extended the concept of wave-particle duality to matter, suggesting that all particles exhibit wave-like behavior. His de Broglie Equation established a relationship between the wavelength and momentum of particles.

1925-01

Formulation of Exclusion Principle by Wolfgang Pauli

In January 1925, Wolfgang Pauli formulated the exclusion principle for electrons in an atom, which states that no two electrons can occupy the same quantum state simultaneously.

1925

Pauli Exclusion Principle

In 1925, Wolfgang Pauli observed that no two electrons in an atom can have the same set of quantum numbers. This principle explains the behavior of electrons in atoms and is a fundamental concept in quantum mechanics.

1925-04

Demonstration of Conservation of Energy and Mass in Atomic Processes

In April 1925, Walther Bothe and Hans Geiger demonstrated that energy and mass are conserved in atomic processes, providing a significant contribution to the understanding of fundamental principles in atomic physics.

1926

Introduction of the Schrödinger Equation

In 1926, Erwin Schrödinger formulated the Schrödinger Equation, describing the wavefunction of particles. This equation revolutionized quantum mechanics by providing a mathematical framework to understand the behavior of particles.

1926-05

Schrödinger's Proof of Equivalence

In May 1926, Erwin Schrödinger proved that Heisenberg's matrix mechanics and his own wave mechanics made the same predictions about the properties and behavior of the electron, despite their differing interpretations.

1927

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

Werner Heisenberg introduced the uncertainty principle, which states that it is impossible to simultaneously know both the exact position and momentum of a quantum object.

1927-10

Debate with Bohr at Solvay Conference

Einstein engages in debates with Bohr regarding the new quantum mechanics during the Solvay Conference in Brussels.

1928

Development of Quantum Electrodynamics

Paul Dirac's work on relativistic quantum theory led to the exploration of quantum theories of radiation, culminating in quantum electrodynamics, the first quantum field theory.

1929

Oskar Klein and the Klein Paradox

Oskar Klein discovers the Klein paradox, a phenomenon in quantum field theory where relativistic high-energy particles can penetrate a high potential barrier.

1929

Introduction of Self-adjoint Algebras by von Neumann

In 1929, John von Neumann introduced self-adjoint algebras of bounded linear operators on a Hilbert space, a crucial development in the mathematical aspects of Quantum Mechanics.

1930

Combining Quantum Mechanics and Special Relativity by Paul Dirac

In 1930, Paul Dirac combined quantum mechanics and special relativity to describe the electron, making significant contributions to the field of theoretical physics.

1930

Fermi Energy Concept

Enrico Fermi calculated the energy difference between electrons in different orbits in a metal, known as the Fermi energy. As electrons are added to higher energy orbits, they possess more energy relative to the initial ones.

1932

Von Neumann's Contribution to Quantum Theory

In 1932, von Neumann established quantum theory on a firm theoretical basis by rigorously putting the entire theory into the setting of operator algebra. This work addressed the lack of mathematical rigor in some earlier quantum theory developments.

1934-12-04

Dead and Alive Concept

In 1934, the concept of 'Dead and Alive' was likely related to Schrödinger's cat thought experiment, exploring the paradoxical nature of quantum superposition. This concept further delved into the complexities of interpreting quantum mechanics in observable phenomena.

1935

EPR Paradox

Einstein, Boris Podolsky, and Nathan Rosen describe the EPR paradox, challenging the completeness of quantum mechanics by demonstrating the need for hidden parameters to explain the influence of measuring the quantum state of one particle on another particle without apparent contact.

1935-04-01

Arnold Sommerfeld achieves emeritus status

On April 1, 1935, Arnold Sommerfeld, Heisenberg's doctoral advisor, achieved emeritus status. This marked a transition in the academic landscape of theoretical physics.

1936

Introduction of Quantum Logic

Garrett Birkhoff and John von Neumann introduce Quantum Logic to reconcile the apparent inconsistency of classical, Boolean logic with the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle of quantum mechanics.

1937

Jahn-Teller Theorem

Hermann Arthur Jahn and Edward Teller prove, using group theory, the instability of non-linear degenerate molecules, leading to the development of the Jahn-Teller effect and its consideration in relation to superconductivity mechanisms.

1938

Calculation of Molecular Orbital Wavefunction

Charles Coulson makes the first accurate calculation of a molecular orbital wavefunction with the hydrogen molecule, contributing to the understanding of chemical bonding.

1947

Lamb-Retherford Experiment

The Lamb-Retherford experiment in 1947 discovered the Lamb shift, which played a crucial role in the development of quantum electrodynamics.

1948

Path Integral Formulation of Quantum Mechanics

Richard Feynman states the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, providing a new perspective on the behavior of quantum systems.

1950

Quantum effects at low temperatures

In 1950, it was discovered that quantum effects can occur at very low temperatures, particularly in the movement of atoms. This observation further emphasizes the significance of quantum mechanics in understanding the behavior of particles.

1951

Quantum Theory by David Bohm

David Bohm published 'Quantum Theory' in 1951, which contributed significantly to the understanding of quantum mechanics.

1952

Invention of the Bubble Chamber

Donald A. Glaser creates the bubble chamber, a device that allows the detection of electrically charged particles by surrounding them with a bubble. This invention enables the determination of properties of particles such as momentum by studying their helical paths.

1953

Development of the First Ammonia Maser

Charles H. Townes, collaborating with James P. Gordon, and Herbert J. Zeiger, builds the first ammonia maser, leading to experimental success in producing coherent radiation by atoms and molecules.

1954

Derivation of Gauge Theory for Nonabelian Groups

Chen Ning Yang and Robert Mills derive a gauge theory for nonabelian groups, which leads to the successful formulation of both electroweak unification and quantum chromodynamics.

1955

Confirmation of Neutrino Existence

In 1955, Clyde L. Cowan and Frederick Reines confirmed the existence of the neutrino in their neutrino experiment.

1956

Experimental Proof of Neutrino Existence

Clyde L. Cowan and Frederick Reines experimentally prove the existence of the neutrino.

1957

Formulation of Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

Hugh Everett formulates the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics, which states that every possible quantum outcome is realized in divergent, non-communicating parallel universes in quantum superposition.

1961

Clauss Jönsson performs Young's double-slit experiment with electrons

In 1961, Clauss Jönsson conducted Young's double-slit experiment using electrons instead of photons, confirming the wave-particle duality principle in quantum field theory.

1962

Quantum Theory of Stimulated Raman Effect

In 1962, the Raman effect, the inelastic scattering of photons by molecules, was discovered by Indian physicist C. V. Raman and independently by Grigory Landsberg and Leonid Mandelstam.

1963-01-01

Nobel Prize in Physics awarded to Maria Goeppert Mayer, J. Hans D. Jensen, and Eugene P. Wigner

Maria Goeppert Mayer and J. Hans D. Jensen, along with Eugene P. Wigner, were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1963 for their discoveries related to nuclear shell structure theory.

1964-01-01

Nobel Prize in Physics awarded to Nikolai G. Basov, Aleksandr M. Prokhorov, and Charles Hard Townes

Nikolai G. Basov and Aleksandr M. Prokhorov were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1964 for their work on semiconductor lasers and Quantum Electronics. They shared the prize with Charles Hard Townes, the inventor of the ammonium maser.

1967

Geschichte der Quantentheorie

The book 'Geschichte der Quantentheorie' was published in Mannheim in 1967, providing a historical account of the development of quantum theory.

1968

String Theory (Theory of quantum gravity)

In 1968, Italian physicist Gabriele Veneziano formulated the foundations of string theory, attempting to unify all four forces and reconcile general relativity and quantum mechanics.

1970-01-01

Observation and Report of Quantum Amplified Stimulation of Electromagnetic Radiation

Theodor V. Ionescu, Radu Pârvan, and I.C. Baianu observed and reported quantum amplified stimulation of electromagnetic radiation in hot deuterium plasmas in a longitudinal magnetic field. They published a quantum theory related to the amplified coherent emission of radiowaves and microwaves by focused electron beams coupled to ions in hot plasmas.

1971

Renormalization of Yang–Mills Theory

Martinus J. G. Veltman and Gerardus 't Hooft demonstrate that the symmetries of Yang–Mills theory can be renormalized if broken according to the method suggested by Peter Higgs. This predicts the existence of the massless particle, gluon, and explains the mass acquisition of W and Z bosons via spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Yukawa interaction.

1972

Experimental Verification of Quantum Entanglement

In 1972, John Clauser and Stuart Freedman conducted an experiment that verified quantum entanglement. This significant achievement contributed to the understanding of quantum mechanics and its applications.

1974

Confirmation of Quantum Fields for Massive Particles

Pier Giorgio Merli performs Young's double-slit experiment using a single electron with similar results, confirming the existence of quantum fields for massive particles.

1975

Formulation of Quantum Chromodynamics

The theory of quantum chromodynamics was formulated by Politzer, Gross and Wilczek, building on pioneering work in the early 1960s.

1977-01-01

Nobel Prize in Physics awarded to Sir Nevill Mott, Philip Warren Anderson, and John Hasbrouck Van Vleck

Sir Nevill Mott and Philip Warren Anderson received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1977 for their quantum theories related to electrons in non-crystalline solids, which led to the development of electronic switching and memory devices in computers. They shared the prize with John Hasbrouck Van Vleck for his contributions to the understanding of the behavior of electrons in magnetic solids.

1979

Nobel Prize in Physics for Electroweak Force

Physicists Glashow, Weinberg and Salam received the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics for showing how the weak nuclear force and quantum electrodynamics could be merged into a single electroweak force.

1980

Discovery of Quantum Hall Effect

The quantized version of the Hall effect was discovered by Klaus von Klitzing in 1980. This discovery led to the definition of a new practical standard for electrical resistance and an extremely precise independent determination of the fine-structure constant.

1982

Bell's Theorem Experimentally Verified

In 1982, Alain Aspect experimentally verified Bell's theorem, which demonstrated the presence of quantum entanglement and refuted local hidden variable theories.

1983

Heisenberg's Applications of Quantum Mechanics (1926-33) or the Settling of the New Land

C. P. Enz's work focuses on Heisenberg's applications of quantum mechanics during 1926-33, providing insights into the early developments and applications of the theory.

1985

Schroedinger's Criticism of Quantum Mechanics - Fifty Years Later

This event reflects on Schroedinger's criticism of quantum mechanics fifty years later in 1985.

1986

Introduction of Quantum Groups as Hopf Algebras

Vladimir Gershonovich Drinfeld introduces the concept of quantum groups as Hopf algebras and connects them to the study of the Yang–Baxter equation, which is crucial for the solvability of statistical mechanics models. He also generalizes Hopf algebras to quasi-Hopf algebras and introduces the study of Drinfeld twists.

1987

Men Who Made a New Physics: Physicists and the Quantum Theory

B. L. Cline's book delves into the individuals who played a significant role in the development of quantum theory, shedding light on the key figures and their contributions.

1988

Discovery of Atomic Dichotomy in Hydrogen

Mihai Gavrilă discovers the new quantum phenomenon of atomic dichotomy in hydrogen and publishes a book on the atomic structure and decay in high-frequency fields of hydrogen atoms placed in ultra-intense laser fields.

1990

Sixty-two years of uncertainty

In 1990, 'Sixty-two years of uncertainty' was published, delving into historical, philosophical, and physical inquiries into the foundations of quantum mechanics.

1991

Cohérence et Complétude de la Mécanique Quantique: L'Exemple de 'Bohr-Rosenfeld'

O. Darrigol's work examines the coherence and completeness of quantum mechanics, using the example of 'Bohr-Rosenfeld' to illustrate important aspects of the theory.

1992

Publication of 'Schrödinger: Life and Thought'

W.J. Moore's book 'Schrödinger: Life and Thought' was published, providing insights into the life and ideas of Erwin Schrödinger, a key figure in the development of quantum mechanics.

1993

Einstein's Interpretations of the Quantum Theory

A. Fine's work explores Einstein's interpretations of the quantum theory, offering valuable perspectives on the views and insights of the renowned physicist.

1994

Mach–Zehnder Interferometer Experiment

In 1994, Paul Kwiat, Harold Wienfurter, Thomas Herzog, Anton Zeilinger, and Mark Kasevich conducted the Mach–Zehnder interferometer experiment, providing experimental verification of the Elitzur–Vaidman bomb tester and proving interaction-free measurement is possible.

1995

Creation of the First Pure Bose–Einstein Condensate

Eric Cornell, Carl Wieman, Wolfgang Ketterle, and co-workers at JILA create the first 'pure' Bose–Einstein condensate by cooling a dilute vapor consisting of approximately two thousand rubidium-87 atoms to below 170 nK using a combination of laser cooling and magnetic evaporative cooling. This marks a significant milestone in the field of quantum mechanics.

1997

From matrix mechanics and wave mechanics to unified quantum mechanics

B L van der Waerden published an article in Notices Amer. Math. Soc. in 1997, discussing the transition from matrix mechanics and wave mechanics to unified quantum mechanics.

2002

Meeting on Quantum Group and Quantum Groupoid Applications

Leonid I. Vainerman organizes a meeting at Strasbourg of theoretical physicists and mathematicians focused on quantum group and quantum groupoid applications in quantum theories. The proceedings of the meeting are published in 2003 in a book edited by the meeting organizer.

2003

Lee's Geometrical View of Quantum Mechanical Analogy

In 2003, Lee presented a geometrical view of the de Broglie wave analogy in quantum mechanics, illustrating the covariant and contravariant vectors relationship. The inner product of vectors was explained as the action of one vector on the other, akin to how many times an arrow pierces the planes.

2006

Einstein and the Quantum

A book titled 'Einstein and the Quantum, the Quest of the Valiant Swabian' was published in 2006.

2009

Invention of the First Quantum Machine

Aaron D. O'Connell invents the first quantum machine, applying quantum mechanics to a macroscopic object just large enough to be seen by the naked eye, which is able to vibrate a small amount and large amount simultaneously.

2010-03-17

Cooling of a Tiny Metal Paddle to Quantum Mechanical 'Ground State'

In 2010, Andrew Cleland and his team at the University of California, Santa Barbara, successfully cooled a tiny metal paddle to its quantum mechanical 'ground state', the lowest-energy state permitted by quantum mechanics. They then demonstrated the simultaneous movement and stillness of the paddle using the principles of quantum mechanics.

2011

Co-existence of Photons in Superconductors

Zachary Dutton demonstrates how photons can co-exist in superconductors with the direct observation of coherent population trapping in a superconducting artificial atom.

2012

Confirmation of Higgs Boson

The existence of Higgs boson was confirmed by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations based on proton-proton collisions in the large hadron collider at CERN. Peter Higgs and François Englert were awarded the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics for their theoretical predictions.

2013

Quantum Holonomy Theory

In 2013, Jesper Møller Grimstrup and Johannes Aastrup developed Quantum Holonomy Theory, a non-perturbative theory of quantum gravity coupled to fermionic degrees of freedom.

2014

Quantum Teleportation of Data

Scientists transfer data by quantum teleportation over a distance of 10 feet with zero percent error rate, a vital step towards a quantum internet.

2018-11-26

Bohr's Hydrogen Atom

The webpage 'Bohr's Hydrogen Atom' on Libretexts discusses the quantum mechanics of the hydrogen atom as proposed by Niels Bohr.

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