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2024-10-26 00:35:13

English mathematician and computer scientist

English mathematician and computer scientist

Alan Turing was a mathematician, computer scientist, and logician known for his work in theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence. He played a crucial role in World War II codebreaking and made significant contributions to computer design and mathematical biology. Despite his accomplishments, Turing faced persecution for his homosexuality and tragically died at a young age. He was posthumously pardoned and is now widely celebrated for his groundbreaking contributions.

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1912-06-23

Born

Alan Mathison Turing was born on June 23, 1912 in Maida Vale, London.

1912-06-23

Alan Turing

Alan Turing was born on June 23, 1912.

1918

Turing's Education at St Michael’s Day School

Turing joins St Michael’s day school in Hastings in 1918, but does not perform very well.

1922

Alan Turing Attends Hazlehurst Preparatory School

At the age of 10, Alan Turing went to Hazlehurst preparatory school. The building still exists but has been converted into flats.

1926-08-19

Early Signs of Intelligence

Early signs of intelligence were observed.

1930

Christopher Morcom's Death

Turing's close friend Christopher Morcom dies suddenly from bovine tuberculosis, leading Turing to renounce his religious faith and become an atheist.

1931-08-29

Getting Serious About Technology

Alan Turing started his studies at King's College, Cambridge, where he excelled in mathematics and demonstrated exceptional intelligence and potential.

1933

Alan Turing's Early Display of Genius

Alan Turing displayed signs of genius at an early age, beginning to study Einstein’s work by himself when he was only 16 years old.

1935

Alan Turing elected Fellow of King's College

In 1935, Alan Turing's exceptional work leads to his election as a Fellow of King's College at the young age of 23.

1936-05-28

Publication of On Computable Numbers

Alan Turing submitted the paper 'On Computable Numbers' to the London Mathematical Society on May 28, 1936. In this paper, he introduced the concept of the Universal Machine, later known as the Turing Machine, which laid the foundation for modern computing.

1936-09-30

Studied at Princeton University

Alan Turing studied at Princeton University.

1936-11-12

Delivery of On Computable Numbers to London Mathematical Society

On November 12, 1936, Alan Turing delivered his paper 'On Computable Numbers' to the London Mathematical Society. This paper outlined the Universal Machine, which later became known as the Turing Machine, and introduced the concept of an idealized computing device capable of performing any mathematical computation that can be represented as an algorithm.

1937

Publication of 'On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem'

In 1937, Alan Turing published his now famous paper 'On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem'. In this paper, he proposed a machine that could move from one state to another by following a rigorous set of rules, which led to the existence of uncomputable functions.

1938-06

Alan Turing joins the Government Code and Cypher School

In the summer of 1938, Alan Turing joined the Government Code and Cypher School after returning from the United States. At the outbreak of World War II in September 1939, he moved to the organization’s wartime headquarters at Bletchley Park, Buckinghamshire.

1938-09

Alan Turing joins Government Code and Cypher School

In September 1938, Alan Turing started working part-time with the Government Code and Cypher School (GCCS), focusing on cryptanalysis of the Enigma machine. He collaborated with Dilly Knox, a senior GCCS codebreaker.

1939-12-06

Hut 8

Alan Turing contributed to solving the essential part of the German naval indicator system while working at Hut 8.

1940-03-18

Bombe

Bombe machine was developed.

1941

Turing's Proposal to Joan Clarke

In 1941, Alan Turing proposed marriage to his Hut 8 co-worker Joan Clarke, but their engagement was short-lived due to Turing's admission of his homosexuality.

1942-11-29

Alan Turing Travels to US

Alan Turing traveled to the United States to collaborate with US naval cryptanalysts in developing their own version of the Bombe machine and Enigma to decrypt encrypted messages.

1943-11

Turing collaborates with U.S. Navy cryptanalysts

In 1943, Alan Turing travelled to the United States and collaborated with U.S. Navy cryptanalysts on Naval Enigma and bombe construction. He also exchanged information about Enigma for access to the speech encryption system for conversations between Churchill and Roosevelt.

1944

Turing works as a top level intelligence link with USA

In 1944, Alan Turing is asked to work as a top level intelligence link with the USA, where he visits to share information on cryptology (code-breaking).

1945

Award of OBE to Alan Turing

At the end of World War II, in 1945, Alan Turing was awarded an OBE for his services to his country.

1946-02-19

Turing publishes detailed design of stored-program computer

On 19th February 1946, Alan Turing published the first detailed design of a stored-program computer, marking a significant milestone in the history of computer science and technology.

1946-11-07

Unveiling of a New Electronic 'Brain'

The Manchester Guardian reported the unveiling of a new electronic 'brain' in Britain on November 7, 1946, marking a significant advancement in the field of computing.

1947-09-13

Work on ACE (Automatic Computing Engine) Design

On September 13, 1947, Turing worked on the design of the ACE (Automatic Computing Engine) while living in Hampton, London.

1948-03-19

Development of LU Decomposition Method

In March 1948, Turing was involved in the development of the LU decomposition method.

1948-08-31

Creation of LU Decomposition Method

Alan Turing created the LU decomposition method, which is still used today to solve matrix equations.

1949

Turing becomes Deputy Director of Computing Laboratory

Turing assumed the role of Deputy Director of the Computing Laboratory at Manchester University, where he worked on software for the Manchester Mark 1, one of the earliest stored-program computers.

1950-04-29

Invention of Turing Test

Alan Turing invented the Turing Test, a method to determine a machine's ability to exhibit intelligent behavior equivalent to, or indistinguishable from, that of a human.

1950-05-10

Pilot ACE executes first program

On May 10, 1950, the Pilot ACE, which was built in Alan Turing's absence, executed its first program.

1951-06-21

World's first stored-program electronic computer comes to life at Manchester

On June 21, 1951, the world's first stored-program electronic computer came to life at Newman's Computing Machine Laboratory in Manchester, where Alan Turing was Deputy Director of the Computing Machine Laboratory.

1952-01-29

Publication of Turing's Book

On January 29, 1952, Alan Turing's book 'The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis' was published, focusing on his interest in the biology of organisms.

1952-06-07

Conviction of Alan Turing

Alan Turing was convicted of 'gross indecency' for his homosexuality on June 7, 1952, which had a significant impact on his life and work.

1953

Publication of Classic Paper on Computer Chess

In 1953, Alan Turing published his classic paper on computer chess, which significantly contributed to the development of computer science and artificial intelligence.

1954-06-07

Death of Alan Turing

Alan Turing died while in the middle of his groundbreaking work on Artificial Life and non-linear dynamical systems, leaving behind a large pile of handwritten notes and some programs. This material is still not fully understood, and his contributions continue to have a significant impact on the field of computer science.

1954-06-08

Suicide of Alan Turing

Alan Turing tragically committed suicide in his house, marking the end of a brilliant but troubled life. His death had a profound impact on the fields of mathematics, computer science, and LGBTQ+ rights.

1966

Establishment of the Turing Award

The annual Turing Award is established to recognize individuals for their technical contributions to the computing community. It is considered highly prestigious, often likened to the Nobel Prize.

1986

Opening of Breaking the Code play

The play Breaking the Code by Hugh Whitemore debuts in the West End and later moves to Broadway. Derek Jacobi portrays Alan Turing and receives three Tony Award nominations for the role.

1998

Unveiling of Blue Plaque at Turing's birthplace

A Blue Plaque is unveiled at Alan Turing's birthplace in Warrington Crescent, London, which is now the Colonnade Hotel.

2001

Unveiling of Alan Turing Statue in Sackville Gardens

In 2001, a statue of Alan Turing was unveiled in Sackville Gardens, Manchester, as a tribute to his contributions to the field of computer science and code-breaking during World War II.

2004

Unveiling of Memorial Plaque at Alan Turing's Last Home

In 2004, a memorial plaque was unveiled at Alan Turing's last home in Wilmslow, Cheshire, to honor his legacy and the impact of his work in the field of mathematics and computer science.

2007

Renaming of The Alan Turing Building at The University of Manchester

In 2007, The University of Manchester renamed the complex housing the School of Mathematics and the Centre for Astrophysics as The Alan Turing Building, in recognition of his groundbreaking work in mathematics and computer science.

2009

Apology from Prime Minister Gordon Brown

In 2009, then Prime Minister Gordon Brown issued a formal apology on behalf of the UK government for the unjust and discriminatory treatment Alan Turing faced. This apology acknowledged the appalling way Turing was treated and sought to rectify the historical injustice.

2012

Alan Turing Centenary

The celebration of the 100th birth anniversary of Alan Mathison Turing, a pioneering mathematician, computer scientist, and codebreaker.

2013

Posthumous pardon by the Queen

In 2013, Alan Turing was posthumously pardoned by the Queen, recognizing the injustice he faced due to his conviction for being in a same-sex relationship. This pardon symbolized a belated acknowledgment of his significant contributions and the mistreatment he endured.

2016

Introduction of Alan Turing Law

The Alan Turing Law was introduced in 2016 to provide posthumous pardons for individuals who were convicted of consensual same-sex relationships before homosexuality was decriminalized in 1967.

2019

Alan Turing featured on new £50 bank note

In 2019, Alan Turing was chosen to be featured on the new £50 bank note. The then Bank of England Governor, Mark Carney, described Turing as a giant on whose shoulders many now stand.

End of the Timeline

**Alan Turing**

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English mathematician and computer scientist

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