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2024-09-22 08:21:10

Theory of Relativity

Theory of Relativity

General theory of gravitation by Albert Einstein, developed between 1907-1915, with contributions by others. Includes special and general relativity.

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1609

Johannes Kepler formulates Kepler's laws of planetary motion

In 1609, German astronomer Johannes Kepler established Kepler's laws of planetary motion, which later influenced Newton's theory of universal gravitation.

1632

Galileo Galilei introduces Galilean relativity

In 1632, Galileo Galilei introduced Galilean relativity, stating that the laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames. He used the example of a ship moving at constant velocity on a smooth sea to illustrate this concept.

1634

Galileo Galilei's contributions to understanding motion

In 1634, Italian physicist Galileo Galilei made significant contributions to the understanding of motion on inclined planes and falling bodies, laying the groundwork for Newton's theory of gravity.

1687

Sir Isaac Newton publishes Newton's Laws of Motion

In 1687, Sir Isaac Newton published the Principia, introducing Newton's Laws of Motion. Newton was not aware at the time that his laws were only correct for low-speed moving objects.

1895

Lorentz Transformation Equations

Hendrik Antoon Lorentz, a Dutch physicist, derived the transformation equations that were later utilized by Albert Einstein in formulating the Special Theory of Relativity.

1902

Abraham's Model of Electromagnetic Mass

Abraham's 1902 model of electromagnetic mass was one of the early contributions to the understanding of mass-energy equivalence, laying the groundwork for future developments in the theory of relativity.

1904

Models of Electromagnetic Mass by Abraham, Lorentz, Bucherer, and Langevin

In 1904, various scientists including Abraham, Lorentz, Bucherer, and Langevin proposed models of electromagnetic mass, which contributed to the development of Einstein's special theory of relativity.

1905

Special Theory of Relativity Introduced

Albert Einstein introduced his special theory of relativity, which revolutionized the understanding of space, time, and the relationship between energy and mass.

1906

Bucherer's Theory of Relativity

In 1906, Alfred Bucherer introduced the term 'theory of relativity' based on Max Planck's concept of relative theory.

1907

Pursuit of Theory of Gravity

In 1907, Albert Einstein began working on a theory that would incorporate gravity into his previous work on special relativity, leading to the development of his general theory of relativity.

1908

Hermann Minkowski's Geometrization of Special Relativity

Hermann Minkowski's geometrization of special relativity allowed Einstein to progress beyond his equivalence principle.

1911

Einstein's Article on Uniformly Accelerated Box

In 1911, Albert Einstein published an article expanding on his previous work, where he considered the case of a uniformly accelerated box not in a gravitational field. He used special relativity to show that time passes differently at different positions in a gravitational field.

1912-10-10

Observation of Light Deflection during Solar Eclipse

In 1912, astronomer Charles D. Perrine and the Cordoba team attempted to observe light deflection during a solar eclipse in Brazil. They were the only expedition to construct specialized equipment for this purpose, borrowing intramercurial camera lenses from the Lick Observatory.

1913

Einstein's Reformulation of Gravity

In 1913, while collaborating with Marcel Grossmann in Zurich, Albert Einstein made significant progress in reformulating gravity. Leveraging geometrical concepts from the mid-1800s, Einstein created a novel and rigorous approach to gravity based on the geometry of space and time.

1914

Publication of Special Relativity

In 1914, Albert Einstein published his Theory of Special Relativity, introducing groundbreaking concepts that reshaped the understanding of space and time.

1915

General Theory of Relativity Published

Albert Einstein published his general theory of relativity, which describes gravity as a curvature in the fabric of spacetime caused by mass and energy.

1915-11-13

Einstein Receives Invitation from Hilbert

On November 13, 1915, Albert Einstein received an invitation from David Hilbert to join him in Göttingen to discuss the 'solution to your great problem.' Einstein declined due to fatigue and stomach pains.

1915-11-19

Einstein Confronted by Hilbert's Manuscript

On November 19, 1915, Albert Einstein received Hilbert's manuscript in the mail, which closely resembled Einstein's own recent work. Einstein expressed his irritation at the similarity of the systems.

1915-11-25

Albert Einstein Completes General Theory of Relativity

In November 1915, Albert Einstein announced the completion of his general theory of relativity at the Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin. This marked a significant milestone in his intellectual journey, reshaping our understanding of gravity, space, time, matter, and energy.

1916

Equivalence Principle Established

Albert Einstein formulated the equivalence principle, stating that the effects of gravity are indistinguishable from the effects of acceleration.

1917

Einstein applies theory to the universe

In 1917, Albert Einstein applied his theory of relativity to the universe as a whole, establishing the foundation of relativistic cosmology. He introduced the cosmological constant to maintain a static universe.

1919

Confirmation of General Relativity by Eddington

Arthur Eddington's expedition confirmed the bending of light around the Sun during a solar eclipse, providing experimental evidence for Einstein's general theory of relativity.

1919-05-29

Confirmation of General Theory of Relativity

Einstein's General Theory of Relativity was confirmed through observations during a solar eclipse. The prediction that beams of light emitted by distant stars would travel along curved trajectories as they passed through the warped region near the Sun was tested successfully.

1922

Friedmann Solution

In 1922, Alexander Friedmann found a solution that suggested the universe may expand or contract, contributing to the understanding of the expanding universe.

1927

Lemaître proposes non-static cosmological solutions

In 1927, Georges Lemaître, a Belgian astronomer and priest, discovered non-static cosmological solutions to Einstein's equations, describing an expanding universe without the need for the cosmological constant. He also theoretically derived Hubble's law.

1929

Discovery of the Universe Expansion

In 1929, Edwin Hubble provided evidence for the expansion of the universe, leading to Einstein abandoning the cosmological constant. This discovery marked a significant shift in our understanding of the cosmos.

1940

Rosen's bimetric theory

Rosen's bimetric theory suggested modifications to the field equations of general relativity, but was refuted by observations of binary pulsars due to the presence of bipolar gravitational radiation.

1948

Howard Percy Robertson invents test theory for Special Theory of Relativity

In 1948, American physicist Howard Percy Robertson created a test theory to demonstrate the validity of the Special Theory of Relativity.

1955

Death of Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein passed away in America in 1955.

1957

Proof of Black Holes Existence

In 1957, Martin Kruskal's proof based on the Schwarzschild solution demonstrated the existence of black holes, a concept initially doubted by Einstein. This breakthrough significantly contributed to the field of astrophysics.

1960

Martin Kruskal's Discovery of Black Hole Spacetime Structure

In 1960, American mathematician and physicist Martin Kruskal unveiled the complete classical spacetime structure of the simplest form of a black hole within the framework of General Relativity.

1961

Brans–Dicke theory

The Brans–Dicke theory, also known as scalar–tensor theory, proposed changes to the field equations of general relativity. It includes a tunable parameter ω, where ω = ∞ is equivalent to general relativity.

1974

Stephen Hawking's Prediction of Hawking Radiation

Stephen Hawking, the English theoretical physicist, made a significant theoretical breakthrough in 1974 by proposing that black holes emit radiation, now known as Hawking radiation.

1986

A note on relativity before Einstein

In 1986, M.N. Macrossan wrote a note discussing the concept of relativity before Einstein in the British Journal of Philosophy of Science.

2011

Successful Conclusion of Gravity Probe B Experiment

In 2011, the team behind Gravity Probe B announced the successful conclusion of the half-century-long experiment, confirming that the gyroscopes' axes were turning as predicted by Einstein's math.

2012

Explanation of anomaly in neutrino speed

In 2012, the anomaly in neutrino speed was attributed to a failure of the equipment, which was officially reported, resolving the initial challenge to the theory of relativity.

2015

Detection of Gravitational Waves

The LIGO experiment detected gravitational waves for the first time, confirming a key prediction of Einstein's general theory of relativity.

2015-10-13

Completion of Albert Einstein's General Theory of Relativity

One hundred years ago, Albert Einstein completed his general theory of relativity, which revolutionized the understanding of gravitation as an inherent property of space and time. This marked a significant milestone in Einstein's life as a physicist.

2017-08-17

Neutron-star merger GW170817

The neutron-star merger event GW170817 helped constrain the possible deviations of Brans–Dicke theory from general relativity through detailed analyses.

End of the Timeline

**Theory of Relativity**

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